Control of Diabetes!

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Control of Diabetes!

People with diabetes are less likely than the general population to develop COVID-19. However, they are more likely to have serious complications if they get sick. The key to avoiding all the unpleasant complications is good management of Diabetes.

According to the Hellenic Diabetes Society (SAD), people with diabetes are more vulnerable to infections and are 2-3 times more likely to get coronavirus, regardless of whether others coexist or not. In general, factors that increase the risk of disease in people with diabetes are the following: poor glycemic regulation (hyper-glycemia weakens the immune system), long duration of diabetes, severe obesity, old age, smoking and the presence of chronic complications of the disease (mainly from the cardiovascular system & kidneys).

Good glycemic control
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that unfortunately is not curable, but it can be regulated. However, it is also a condition that is influenced by many factors; as a result, regulation is not always stable. Blood sugar can change up to 8500 times a day from hyperglycemic to sub-glycemic levels and vice versa. For this reason, it is necessary to constantly monitor and constantly treat, so that diabetes is regulated at all times, something which is practically equivalent to treatment and that helps the patient avoid later complications. The control of blood sugar through diet, exercise, monitoring and medication - seems to be the top tactic for protecting diabetics.

Chronic complications of SD are really the scourge of the disease and, as SD doubles or quadruples the risk of cardiovascular events, it is the 1st cause of dialysis, the 1st cause of retinopathy leading to blindness, the 1st cause of non-traumatic amputation of the lower extremities. All this leads to a decrease in survival. The storm of complications is prevented by the excellent regulation of sugar, as many large studies have shown, as well as by the regulation of other risk factors - concomitant conditions (hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity), especially since diabetics - very often up to 40% of them- have all three of these accompanying conditions.

How to manage diabetes

When there are symptoms such as dry mouth, thirst, polyuria, itching in the genitals, it is almost certain that the regulation is not good and that blood sugar is high. On the contrary, symptoms such as sweating, tachycardia, drowsiness, and confusion indicate hypoglycemia, which also means poor regulation. Accompanying indications are the increase and decrease of body weight, as well as the delay of physical development in children.

Blood sugar is one of the best indicators for the regulation of diabetes. The aim is to maintain normal diabetic limits (80 - 120 mg / d1 fasting and up to approximately 150 mg / dl postprandial) without hyper- or hypoglycemia for 24 hours. Thus, various measurements during the day, fasting hours (morning) and post-meal hours (2 hours after eating) are necessary.

The more tried and tested method of self-monitoring is one that involves a daily measurement of a different time at a time (fasting or postprandial). The exact number of measurements, of course, depends on the type of diabetes (I or II) and the treatment.

It is a fairly easy method with the advantage for the diabetic that it is bloodless and economical. It gives us the general but important information if the blood sugar is above 170mg / d1 and this is because the sugar comes out in the urine only when the blood is above this value. In exceptional and rare cases it may come out at a lower price or not come out even if it is higher and this is related to kidney problems. So, by measuring the sugar in the urine we have a satisfactory depiction of the regulation of the diabetic patient.

Oxone in the urine indicates a disorder of diabetes and is the bell that warns of the risk of diabetic coma. It does not need to be done daily, unless the sugar in the urine seems to be constantly high. Rarely may urine be sugar-free, but have oxone when the diabetic takes in very few carbohydrates (fasting oxone).



In recent years, there has been observed in the diagnostics of SD, an

ever-increasing interest in measuring hemoglobin A1. One of the main reasons is

that it provides a picture of the average blood glucose levels in the weeks or

months since its measurement. That is, it can be characterized as the stored

"memory" of blood glucose.


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